SFM - Surface Force Apparatus

We are currently running two newly designed electrochemical surface forces apparatuses (EC-SFA) that allow control and measurement of surface potentials and interfacial electrochemical reactions with simultaneous measurement of normal interaction forces (with nN resolution), friction forces (with nN resolution), and distances (with Å resolution) between apposing surfaces. The EC-SFA allows, for the first time, one to also look at complex long-term transient effects of dynamic processes (e.g., relaxation times), which are also reflected in interfacial forces while tuning electrochemical surface potentials.

M. Valtiner, X. Banquy, K. Kristiansen, G. W. Greene, and J. N. Israelachvili, "The Electrochemical Surface Forces Apparatus: The Effect of Surface Roughness, Electrostatic Surface Potentials, and Anodic Oxide Growth on Interaction Forces, and Friction between Dissimilar Surfaces in Aqueous Solutions," Langmuir 28 (36), 13080-13093 (2012).

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